2015年5月15日 星期五

「ketchup」多次流轉的外來語 其實是台灣母語

大航海拾遺(1)
小時稱蕃茄醬為ki-chia-bu,這是從日語的ケチャップ轉過來的外來語,而日語的ケチャップ則是從英語的ketchup轉過來的外來語,英語的ketchup則是從閩南語的「給(gei,因無漢字,故取其國字發音,以「給字代之)汁」轉過來的外來語;所以,被認為是多次轉手的台灣外來語ki-chia-pu,其實是母語。

赤嘴仔給。(幾乎只在雲林口湖才有的海產)

從很早期開始,閩南一帶討海人會將生的蚵仔、小蝦、小魚、小卷、貝類等物鹽漬保存,以對付漁獲不佳或天候不良無法出海的日子,這種鹽漬生的小海鮮就叫「給」,如蚵仔給、蝦仔給、魩仔魚給、小管仔給等等。鹽漬小海鮮本身可以配白飯或稀飯,它所餘下的漬汁則可做為料理海鮮的醬汁。以漬汁為海鮮醬汁的料理手法,在大航海時代經由西方水手引入歐洲,輾轉成為英語的ketchup(所以從給汁到ketchup,可能又經過多次的外來語流轉),因其後在美國大量生產的蕃茄汁也是海鮮料理的主要醬汁之一,所以ketchup便轉為專指蕃茄醬,日本人以片假名將之稱為ケチャップ,在日本時代傳到台灣,因為民間口音關係,母親把它唸成ki-chia-bu,所以ki-chia-bu其實是給汁多次轉音後的發音。

台灣部分先民從閩南一帶海口移民,自然也把「給」這種食物處理手法帶到台灣,過去台灣大小魚港漁民製作「給」,以自用或賣給觀光客的情形非常普遍。現今「給」仍是某些觀光漁港的土特產,不過有些地方「給」的製法已有改變,因原先由生的小海鮮予以鹽漬,賣相不佳,且鹽漬物非常非常非常鹹,以致年輕人接受度不高,部分業者改以經煮熟後的小海鮮予以鹽漬,並減鹽且增加其它調味。

「給」是我們基隆腔的台語唸法,宜蘭腔則音近「鬼」,蚵仔給,在宜蘭唸成「蚵仔鬼(鬼稍帶鼻音)」。但不管給或鬼,或甚至廈門話的原音,都和ketchup的ket音有對音關係。汁這字台語唸為tsiap,和chup有對音關係,ketchup的源頭即「給汁」。

《維基百科》中,有認為ketchup這字源自「鮭汁」者,這說不通,鮭魚是溫帶魚類,閩南沿海討海人和它遇逢的機會不高,更不可能把它拿來為日常小食命名。

又給汁和東南亞盛行的魚露也不同,主要差異在,給汁是鹽漬生的小海鮮後的副產品,魚露則是漁民大量煮魚後的副產品。過去沒有冷凍庫,漁民抓到魚後,立即予以煮熟,以利保存,因魚獲量大,魚一批批入鍋,不換湯汁,煮到最後,湯汁即成精純的海鮮高湯,此為魚露來源。直至上世紀的八十年代,這種以幾個大鍋大火不斷煮魚的場景,仍可在基隆八斗子看到。(李季光 媒體工作者 )

30 則留言:

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  2. 作者認為"鮭汁"說不通的理由顯然是對"鮭"這個漢字認識不足。鮭的原義有好幾種,有代指河魨、有做為魚肉的泛稱,莊子一書裡就有提到"鮭",不是你和一般現代人以為的專指溫帶鮭科魚類,鮭專指鮭科魚類是二十世紀以來才發生的變化。閩南語"鮭汁"沿襲的可能就是古語原意泛指"魚肉(鮭)汁"。所以"ketchup源自鮭汁"這個解釋是挺合理的,台灣所謂的"給汁"很有可能也是"鮭汁"的閩南語近音訛寫。

    參考資料
    《康熙字典·魚部·六》鮭:《廣韻》古攜切《集韻》涓畦切,��音圭。魚名。《山海經》敦薨之山,其中多赤鮭。《註》今名鯸鮐爲鮭魚。《雷公炮炙論》鮭魚插樹,立使枯乾。一名䲅魚,一名嗔魚。日華子謂之鰗魚,今謂之河豚。《論衡》鮭肝死人。又《廣韻》《集韻》��戸佳切,音鞵。吳人謂魚菜總稱。《世說》庾杲之淸貧,每食三韭。任昉戲之曰:誰謂庾郞貧,每食鮭菜,常有二十七種。又《廣韻》苦圭切《集韻》頃畦切,��音睽。複姓。《後漢·牟融傳》代鮭陽鴻爲大司農。《註》鮭陽,姓也。又《集韻》烏媧切,音蛙。鮭蠪,神名。《莊子·達生篇》倍阿鮭蠪。《註》倍阿,神名也。鮭蠪,狀如小兒,長一尺四寸,黑衣赤幘大冠,帶劒持戟。又《集韻》戸瓦切,音跨。楚冠名。

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